Tuesday, 23 September 2014

A smarter way to find new drugs

End to end solutions Big Data push to research In Green / shutterstock.com
End to end solutions Big Data push to research In Green / shutterstock.com
The pharma sector needs to embrace emerging technologies like Big Data analytics and cloud computing
What is the secret sauce of accelerating innovation when it comes to critical areas such as drug discovery, personalised medicines or simulated healthcare? Embracing continual innovation was always an imperative for the life sciences companies to stay relevant, and stay alive. This is not just confined to the new drug discovery team within the company, it spans the entire value chain of the innovation ecosystem. The question is whether enough is being done to drive R&D innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.
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Saturday, 20 September 2014

Talaglumetad hydrochloride

Chemical structure for Talaglumetad hydrochloride (USAN)
Talaglumetad hydrochloride
EXACT MASS292.0826
MOL WEIGHT292.7161
CAS: 441765-97-5
441765-98-6 (free base)
IUPAC Name: (1R,4S,5S,6S)-4-[[(2S)-2-aminopropanoyl]amino]bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylic acid hydrochloride
Synonyms: Talaglumetad HCl, Talaglumetad hydrochloride, LY 544344 hydrochloride,
UNII-X30300EU7I,  D09008, 441765-97-5,
Bicyclo(310)hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, 2-(((2S)-2-amino-1-oxopropyl)amino)-, monohydrochloride, (1S,2S,5R,6S)-
(1S,2S,5R,6S)-2-(L-Alanylamino)bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid hydrochloride
(1S,2S,5R,6S)-2-[2(S)-Aminopropionamido]bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid hydrochloride
Treatment of anxiety and stress disorders [metabotropic glutamate [mGlu] agonist]

Talaglumetad hydrochloride, a prodrug of the type II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist eglumetad, reached phase III clinical studies for the treatment of anxiety at Lilly.
Compound Structure
  • In recent years, with the repeated cloning of glutamate receptor genes, it has become clear that there are surprisingly many subtypes of glutamate receptors. At present, glutamate receptors are broadly classified into two types: the “ionotropic type”, in which the receptor has an ion channel structure, and the “metabotropic type”, in which the receptor is coupled to G-proteins (Science, 258, 597-603, 1992). Ionotropic receptors are classified pharmacologically into three types: N-methyl-D-asparaginic acid (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl isoxazole-4-propionate AMPA), and kynate (Science, 258, 597-603, 1992). Metabotropic receptors are classified into eight types, type 1 through type 8 (J. Neurosci., 13, 1372-1378, 1993; Neuropharmacol., 34, 1-26, 1995).
  • The metabotropic glutamate receptors are classified pharmacologically into three groups. Of these, group 2 (mGluR2/mGluR3) bind with adenylcyclase, and inhibit the accumulation of the Forskolin stimulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) (Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 14, 13 (1993)), which suggests that compounds that act on group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptors should be useful for the treatment or prevention of acute and chronic psychiatric and neurological disorders. As a substance that acts on group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptors, (+)-(1S,2S,5R,6S)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid has been disclosed in Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication, No. Hei 8-188561 [1996].
  • Fluorine atoms tend to be strongly electron-attractive and to confer high fat solubility, and compounds into which fluorine atoms are introduced greatly change their physical properties. Thus introducing fluorine atoms might greatly affect the absorbability, metabolic stability, and pharmacological effects of a compound. But it is by no means easy to introduce fluorine atoms. In fact, Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. Hei 8-188561 [1996] does not even discuss the introduction of fluorine atoms into (+)-(1S,2S,5R,6S)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid.

Process development of (1S,2S,5R,6S)-spiro[bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2′,5′-dioxo-2,4′-imidazolidine]-6-carboxylic acid, (R)-alpha-methylbenzenemethanamine salt (LSN344309)
Org Process Res Dev 2006, 10(1): 28
LY544344 hydrochloride 6 is Talaglumetad

Abstract Image
Process development and a pilot-plant process for the synthesis of 4 and its resolution to obtain (1S,2S,5R,6S)-spiro[bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2‘,5‘-dioxo-2,4‘-imidazolidine]-6-carboxylic acid, (R)-α-methylbenzenemethanamine salt (5) are described. Starting from the inexpensive raw 2-cyclopenten-1-one and sulfur ylide 1 the racemic bicyclo keto ester 2 was synthesized. Reaction of 2 with potassium cyanide and ammonium carbonate under Bücherer−Berg’s reaction conditions affords racemic 3 in 80% yield. Hydrolysis of 3 followed by the resolution with (R)-(+)-α-methylbenzylamine gave 4 in excellent yield and purity under optimized conditions. The improvement of the original discovery process to accommodate safety and environmental requirements for scale-up in manufacturing facilities is also discussed.
LY544344 hydrochloride 6 is a new chemical entity under investigation by Eli Lilly & Company as a potential treatment of neurological or psychiatric disorders related to the mammalian central nervous system (CNS)
Scheme 1.  Original process for the synthesis of LSN344309 an intermediate of Talaglumetad
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2005), 48(16), 5305-5320
WO 2002055485

Figure 00090001

New approaches in the development of orally bioavailable selective group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists
Drugs Fut 2002, 27(Suppl. A): Abst C39
Utility of influx transporters to enhance oral bioavailability
241st ACS Natl Meet (March 27-30, Anaheim) 2011, Abst MEDI 163
The intestinal absorption of a prodrug of the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY354740 is mediated by PEPT1: In situ rat intestinal perfusion studies
J Pharm Sci 2010, 99(3): 1574
Dipeptides as effective prodrugs of the unnatural amino acid (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740), a selective group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist
J Med Chem 2005, 48(16): 5305
An efficient synthesis of LY544344.HCl: A prodrug of mGluR2 agonist LY354740
Tetrahedron Lett 2005, 46(43): 7299
Pharmacodynamics of a novel anxiolytic (LY544344)
24th CINP Congr (June 20-24, Paris) 2004, Abst P02.269

WO2000004010A1*Jul 14, 1999Jan 27, 2000Stephen Richard BakerBicyclohexane derivatives
EP0696577A1 *Aug 11, 1995Feb 14, 1996Eli Lilly And CompanySynthetic excitatory amino acids
EP1052246A1 *Jan 27, 1999Nov 15, 2000Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. LtdFluorine-containing amino acid derivatives

FDA Approves Trulicity (dulaglutide) for Type 2 Diabetes

FDA Approves Trulicity (dulaglutide) for Type 2 Diabetes

PRONUNCIATION doo” la gloo’ tide
THERAPEUTIC CLAIM Treatment of type II diabetes
1. 7-37-Glucagon-like peptide I [8-glycine,22-glutamic acid,36-glycine] (synthetic
human) fusion protein with peptide (synthetic 16-amino acid linker) fusion protein with immunoglobulin G4 (synthetic human Fc fragment), dimer
2. [Gly8,Glu22,Gly36]human glucagon-like peptide 1-(7-37)-peptidyltetraglycyl-Lseryltetraglycyl-L-seryltetraglycyl-L-seryl-L-alanyldes-Lys229-[Pro10,Ala16,Ala17]human immunoglobulin heavy constant γ4 chain H-CH2-CH3 fragment, (55-55′:58-58′)-bisdisulfide dimer

  • Dulaglutide
  • LY 2189265
  • LY-2189265
  • LY2189265

GLP-1 immunoglobulin G (IgG4) Fc fusion protein with extended activity; a hypoglycemic agent.
  • 7-37-Glucagon-like peptide I (8-glycine,22-glutamic acid,36-glycine) (synthetic human) fusion protein
    with peptide (synthetic 16-amino acid linker) fusion protein with immunoglobulin G4 (synthetic human Fc fragment), dimer
sept 18 2014
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved dulaglutide (Trulicity, Eli Lilly & Co), as a once-weekly injection for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
A member of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist class, dulaglutide joins liraglutide (Victoza, Novo Nordisk), exenatide (Byetta, AstraZeneca/Bristol-Myers Squibb), and albiglutide (Tanzeum, GlaxoSmithKline), on the US market.
Once-weekly dulaglutide was approved based on 6 clinical trials involving a total of 3342 patients who received the drug. It was studied as a stand-alone therapy and in combination withmetformin, sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, and prandial insulin.
In one trial the once-weekly dulaglutide was non-inferior to daily liraglutide and in another it topped the oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin (Januvia, Merck).
The most common side effects observed in patients treated with dulaglutide were nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and decreased appetite.
Dulaglutide should not be used to treat people with type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, or severe abdominal or intestinal problems, or as first-line therapy for patients who cannot be managed with diet and exercise.
As with others in its class, dulaglutide’s label will include a boxed warning that thyroid C-cell tumors have been observed in rodents but the risk in humans is unknown. The drug should not be used in patients with a personal or family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.
The FDA is requiring Lilly to conduct the following postmarketing studies for dulaglutide:
•  A clinical trial to evaluate dosing, efficacy, and safety in children
•  A study to assess potential effects on sexual maturation, reproduction, and central nervous system development and function in immature rats
•  An MTC case registry of at least 15 years duration to identify any increase in MTC incidence with the drug
•  A clinical trial comparing dulaglutide with insulin glargine on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate or severe renal impairment
•  A cardiovascular outcomes trial to evaluate the drug’s cardiovascular risk profile in patients with high baseline risk for cardiovascular disease.
The FDA approval also comes with a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, including a communication plan to inform healthcare professionals about the serious risks associated with the drug.

Disulfide bridges location
55-55′ 58-58′ 90-150 90′-150′ 196-254 196′-254′
MANUFACTURER Eli Lilly and Company
LY2189265 (dulaglutide), a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, is a biologic entity being studied as a once-weekly treatment for type 2 diabetes.
Dulaglatuide works by stimulating cells to release insulin only when blood sugar levels are high.
Gwen Krivi, Ph.D., vice president, product development, Lilly Diabetes, said of the drug, “We believe dulaglutide, if approved, can bring significant benefits to people with type 2 diabetes.”
In fact, it might help to control both diabetics’ blood sugar and their high blood pressure.
Eli Lilly CEO John Lechleiter believes the drug has the potential to be a blockbuster. Lilly could be ready to seek approval by 2013.
For more information on dulaglutide clinical studies, click here.


Dasotraline, 1R,4S Transnorsertraline, SEP-225289………For treatment of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Inline image 1

Dasotraline,  SEP-225289, DSP-225289  

1R,4S Transnorsertraline
Generic Name:Dasotraline
Synonym: SEP-225289
Chemical Name:(1R,4S)-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-amine
4(S)-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1(R)-ylamine hydrochloride
CAS Number:675126-05-3, Cas of THE DRUG SUBSTANCE hydrochloride is 675126-08-6
Indication:Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Drug Company:Sunovion Pharmaceuticals. Inc. in phase 2 as on sept 2014, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.
PRONUNCIATION da soe tra’ leen
THERAPEUTIC CLAIM Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD)
1. 1-Naphthalenamine, 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-, (1R,4S)-
2. (1R,4S)-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-amine
SPONSOR Sunovion Pharmaceuticals. Inc.
SEP-225289 is an antidepressant which had been in early clinical trials at Sepracor (now Sunovion Pharmaceuticals) for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). In 2010, the company discontinued development of the compound for this indication. At present, phase II clinical trials are under way for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In preclinical studies, the drug has been shown to be a potent and balanced reuptake inhibitor of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine (SNDRI). A drug candidate with a triple mechanism of action as such may provide a broader spectrum of therapy than currently marketed antidepressants.
Recently, drug candidates for blocking the monoamine reuptake transporters have sparked considerable interest in the pharmaceutical industry for treatment of central nervous system disorders. Various candidates are in clinical evaluation in addition to numerous others at the preclinical stage. Sertraline 2is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), marketed by Pfizer as Zoloft for depression. (1R,4S)-4-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-amine hydrochloride 1 is structurally similar to sertraline 2 and is currently under investigation for a number of potential central nervous system disorder indications at Sepracor.
Clinicians recognize a distinction among central nervous system illnesses, and there have been many schemes for categorizing mental disorders. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Ed., Text Revision, (hereinafter, the “DSM-IV-TR™”), published by the American Psychiatric Association, and incorporated herein by reference, provides a standard diagnostic system upon which persons of skill rely. According to the framework of the DSM-IV-TR™, the CΝS disorders of Axis I include: disorders diagnosed in childhood (such as, for example, attention deficit disorder or “ADD” and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder or “ADHD”) and disorders diagnosed in adulthood. CΝS disorders diagnosed in adulthood include
(1) schizophrenia and psychotic disorders; (2) cognitive disorders;(3) mood disorders; (4) anxiety related disorders; (5) eating disorders; (6) substance related disorders; (7) personality disorders; and (8) “disorders not yet included” in the scheme.
Of particular interest to the present invention are adulthood disorders of DSM-IN-TR™ categories (1) through (7) and sexual disorders, currently classified in category (8). Mood disorders of particular interest include depression, seasonal affective disorder and bipolar disorder. Anxiety related disorders of particular interest are agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, phobic anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, premenstrual syndrome, social phobia, chronic fatigue disorder, perimenopause, menopause and male menopause.
In general, treatment for psychoses, such as schizophrenia, for example, is quite different than treatment for mood disorders. While psychoses are treated with D2 antagonists such as olanzapine (the “typical” and “atypical” antipsychotics), mood disorders are treated with drugs that inhibit the neuronal reuptake of monoamines, in particular, serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (ΝE) and dopamine (DA).
[005] Common therapeutic agents for mood disorders include, but are not limited to, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s), including fluoxetine, citalopram, nefazodone, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline.
Sertraline, whose chemical name (lS,4S)-c/5 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-Ν-methyl-l-napthalenamine, is approved for the treatment of depression by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and is available under the trade name ZOLOFT® (Pfizer Inc., NY, NY, USA). In the human subject, sertraline has been shown to be metabolized to (lS,4S)-c« 4- (3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-l-napthalenamine, also known as desmethylsertraline or norsertraline. Desmethylsertraline has been described as “not contributing significantly to the serotonergic action of sertraline” Ronfield et al, Clinical Pharmacokinetcs, 32:22-30 (1997). Reports from Hamelin et al, Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 60:512 (1996) and Serebruany et al, Pharmacological Research, 43:453-461 (2001), have stated that norsertraline is “neurologically inactive”. These statements appear to be based on results observed in serotonin-induced syndrome and ptosis in mouse models in vivo, whereas the original Pfizer research papers suggested on the basis of data in vitro that desmethylsertraline was a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor. Koe et al, JPET, 226:686-700 (1983). Sanchez et al, Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 19: 467 (1999), speculated that despite its lower potency, desmethylsertraline might play a role in the therapeutic effects of sertraline but, there is presently no evidence in the literature to support this theory.
] The primary clinical use of sertraline is in the treatment of depression. In addition, United States Patent 4,981,870 discloses and claims the use of sertraline and norsertraline, as well as (lR,4S)-trans 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-N-methyl-l-napthalenamine and (lS,4R)-trαra 4-(3 ,4- dichlorophenyl)- 1 ,2,3 ,4-tetrahydro-N-methyl- 1 -napthalenamine for the treatment of psychoses, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammation. The receptor pharmacology of the individual (1S,4R) and (1R,4S) enantiomers of trα«5 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-N-methyl-l -napthalenamine is described by Welch et al, J. Med. Chem., 27:1508-1515 (1984). Summary of the Invention
It has now been discovered that {\R,4S)-trans 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-l-napthalenamine (P) and (lS,4R)-tra«_ 4-(3 ,4- dichlorophenyl)- 1,2,3, 4-tetrahydro-l-napthalenamine (Q) are useful in the treatment of CNS-related disorders that are modulated by monoamine activity, and produce diminished side effects as compared to the current standards of treatment. Treatable CNS disorders include, but are not limited to, mood disorders {e.g., depression), anxiety disorders {e.g., OCD), behavioral disorders {e.g., ADD and ADHD), eating disorders, substance abuse disorders and sexual function disorders. The compounds are also useful for the prophylaxis of migraine.
Compounds P and Q are represented by the formulae:
Figure imgf000005_0001
In one aspect, the present invention relates to a method for treating CNS disorders, which involves the administration of a therapeutically effective amount of P or Q, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of either.
In another aspect, the invention relates to trans- 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-l-napthalenamine of the formula (PQ):
Figure imgf000006_0001
Skeletal formulae of chlorprothixene and tametraline, from which sertraline was derived
Norsertraline, sertraline’s chief active metabolite
(Scheme 2).
Figure US20090149549A1-20090611-C00025
In a preferred embodiment, the compound prepared by the route of Scheme 2 is (1R,4S)-trans 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenamine. Even more preferred is the preparation of the compound substantially free of its cis isomer.
Example 1
Synthesis of N—((S)-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl)acetamide (3)1.1. Synthesis of Oxime 2
A suspension formed from a mixture of (S)-tetralone 1 (56.0 g, 0.192 mol), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (14.7 g, 0.212 mol), and sodium acetate (17.4 g, 0.212 mol) in methanol (168 mL) was heated to reflux for 1 to 5 hours under a N2atmosphere. The progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC. After the reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was diluted with toluene (400 mL) and 200 mL water. The organic layer was separated and washed with an additional 200 mL water. The organic layer was concentrated and dried to give crude solid oxime 2 (58.9 g, 100%), m. p. 117-120° C.
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ (ppm) 9.17 (br, 1H, OH), 7.98 (m, 1H), 7.36 (d, 1H, J=8.0 Hz), 7.29 (m, 2H), 7.20 (d, 1H, J=2.4 Hz), 6.91 (m, 2H), 4.11 (dd, 1H, J=7.2 Hz, 4.4 Hz), 2.82 (m, 2H), 2.21 (m, 1H), 2.08 (m, 1H). 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 154.94, 144.41, 140.40, 132.83, 130.92, 130.82, 130.68, 130.64, 129.98, 129.38, 128.12, 127.64, 124.48, 44.52, 29.51, 21.27.
1.2. Synthesis of Enamide 3
The solution of the crude oxime 2 (59 g, 0.193 mol) in toluene (500 mL) was purged with Nfor 30 min. Et3P (25 g, 0.212 mol) was charged. After stirring for 10 min, acetic anhydride (21.6 g, 20 mL, 0.212 mol) was added. The reaction mixture was refluxed for 8 to 13 h. Progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature. 6N NaOH (aq) (86 mL, 0.516 mol) and 1.0 M (n-Bu)4NOH in methanol (1.0 mL) were added. The hydrolysis was complete in about 2 to 4 h. The organic layer was separated and diluted with EtOAc (300 mL) and 2-BuOH (30 mL). The diluted organic solution was washed with 1% HOAc (aq) solution (300 mL) and DI water (3×300 mL) and concentrated to about 350 mL of a slurry in vacuo. The slurry was diluted with heptane (100 mL) and 2-BuOH (4 mL) and heated to reflux to form a clear solution. Heptane (50 to 200 mL) was slowly added until a cloudy solution formed. The suspension was slowly cooled to rt. The product was filtered out, washed with 30% toluene and 70% heptane (3×100 mL) solution and dried in a vacuum oven to give 56.9 g white solid (enamide 3, 89% yield), m. p. 167-168° C.
(S)-Tetralone 1 (50.0 g, 0.172 mol) was slurried in methanol (150 mL) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride (13.1 g, 0.189 mol) and sodium acetate (15.5 g, 0.189 mol). The resulting suspension was heated to reflux for 2 to 6 h under an inert atmosphere with progress monitored by HPLC. On completion, the mixture was cooled to 25° C., diluted with toluene (300 mL) and quenched with 1.7 N NaOH (100 mL). The mixture was concentrated in vacuo under reduced pressure, the aqueous layer removed and the organic layer washed further with DI water (100 mL). Further toluene (300 mL) was charged to the vessel and water removed by azeotropic distillation. Once at ambient temperature, n-Bu3P (47.1 mL, 0.183 mol) was charged to the reactor, followed by acetic anhydride (32.5 mL, 0.344 mol). The reaction was heated to reflux and monitored by HPLC. After 20-24 h, the reaction was cooled to ambient temperature and quenched with 6 N NaOH (120 mL). This mixture was allowed to react for 2 to 6 h before the aqueous layer was removed. The organic phase was washed with DI water (100 mL). Concentration of the mixture in vacuo, cooling to room temperature and diluting with isopropanol (50 mL) was done prior to addition of heptane to assist with crystallization. An initial charge of heptane (50 mL) was followed by an additional 650 mL. Aging of the slurry followed by filtration, washing (4×100 mL heptane) and drying yielded a light yellow solid (enamide 3, 44.1 g, 77%).
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ (ppm) 7.35 (d, 1H, J=8.4 Hz), 7.26 (m, 3H), 7.17 (m, 1H), 7.05 (dd, 1H, J=8.0, 1.6 Hz), 7.00 (br, 1H), 6.87 (m, 0.82H, 82% NH rotamer), 6.80 (br, 0.18H, 18% NH rotamer), 6.31 (t, 0.82H, J=4.8 Hz, 82% H rotamer), 5.91 (br, 0.18H, 18% H rotamer), 4.12 (br, 0.18H, 18% H rotamer), 4.03 (t, 0.82H, J=8.0 Hz, 82% H rotamer), 2.72 (m, 1H), 2.61 (ddd, 1H, J=16.8, 8.0, 4.8 Hz), 2.17 (s, 2.46H, 82% CHrotamer), 1.95 (s, 0.54H, 18% CH3rotamer). 100 MHz13CNMR (CDCl3) δ 169.3, 143.8, 137.7, 132.3, 131.8, 131.4, 130.5, 130.3, 130.2, 128.8, 128.1, 127.8, 127.2, 123.8, 122.5, 121.2, 117.5, 42.6, 30.3, 24.1.
Example 2Synthesis of N-((1R,4S)-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)acetamide (4)
The enamide 3 (24 g, 72 mmol) was slurried in degassed isopropanol (200 mL). The resulting slurry was transferred to the appropriate reactor. Prior to the addition of the catalyst solution, the content of the reactor was purged with nitrogen. A solution of (R,R)-MeBPE(COD)RhBFcatalyst (20.1 mg, 0.036 mmol, 0.05 mol %) in isopropanol (IPA) (100 mL) was added to the reactor. The content was cooled to 0° C. and purged with nitrogen three times. The reactor was then purged with hydrogen and pressurized to 90 psig. The reaction was aged with agitation at 0° C. for 7.5 h and conversion was monitored by the hydrogen uptake. The content was then warmed to RT and hydrogen was vented. After purging with nitrogen, the contents were drained. The reaction mixture was heated to 50° C. and filtered through a pad of Celite. The clear orange solution was concentrated to ˜50% volume (150 mL) and diluted with toluene (5.9 g, 5 wt %). The suspension was heated to 65° C. and water (14.7 mL) was added dropwise to form a cloudy solution. The slurry was slowly cooled to −10° C. and aged for 30 minutes. The solid was filtered and washed with cold IPA (2×45 mL). The cake was dried under vacuum at 45° C. overnight to afford 20.0 g (83% yield) of trans acetamide 4 (>99% de).
1H NMR (CDCl3) 400 MHz δ 7.34 (dd, 2H, J=7.9, 2.4 Hz), 7.23 (t, 1H, J=7.5 Hz), 7.15 (m, 2H), 6.85 (dd, 1H, J=8.2, 2.0 Hz), 6.82 (d, 1H, J=7.7 Hz), 5.72 (d, 1H, J=8.4 Hz), 5.31 (dd, 1H, J=13.2, 8.1 Hz), 4.10 (dd, 1H, J=7.0, 5.9 Hz), 2.17 (m, 2H), 2.06 (s, 3H), 1.87 (m, 1H). 1.72 (m, 1H); 13C NMR (CDCl3) 100 MHz δ 169.7, 146.9, 138.8, 137.7, 132.6, 130.8, 130.6, 130.5, 130.3, 128.4, 128.3, 127.9, 127.4, 47.9, 44.9, 30.5, 28.4, 23.8.
Example 3
Synthesis of (1R,4S)-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-amine Hydrochloride (5)
A solution of trans-acetamide 4 (9.0 g, 26.9 mmol), n-propanol (45 mL) and 5M hydrochloric acid (45 mL) was refluxed for approximately 48 h (90-93° C.). During this time, the reaction temperature was maintained at ≧90° C. by periodically collecting the distillate until the reaction temperature was >92° C. Additional n-propanol was added periodically to maintain the solution at its original volume. After the hydrolysis was complete, the solution was slowly cooled to 0° C., resulting in a slurry, which was aged for one hour at 0° C. The reaction mixture was filtered, and the cake was washed with 1:1 methanol/water (20 mL), followed by t-butyl methyl ether (20 mL). The wet-cake was dried under vacuum at 45 to 50° C. to afford 7.0 g of the amine hydrochloride 5 (80% yield).
1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 1.81-1.93 (m, 2H), 2.12-2.21 (m, 1H), 2.28-2.36 (m, 1H), 4.28 (t, 1H, J=6.8), 4.59 (br.s, 1H), 6.84 (d, 1H, J=7.6), 7.05 (dd, 1H, J=8.4, 1.6), 7.25 (t, 1H, J=7.6), 7.32 (t, 1H, J=7.6), 7.37 (d, 1H, J=1.6), 7.56 (d, 1H, J=8.4), 7.76 (d, 1H, J=7.2), 8.80 (br.s, 3H);
13C NMR (DMSO-d6) 147.4, 138.9, 133.6, 131.0, 130.5, 130.4, 130.1, 129.0, 128.9, 128.4, 128.2, 126.8, 47.9, 43.1, 27.8, 25.2.
Example 5 Catalytic Asymmetric Hydrogenation of the Enamide 3 Using (R,S,R,S)-MePenn Phos(COD)RhBFas the Catalyst
As shown in Scheme 4, the enamide 3 was subjected to homogeneous catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation in the presence of a chiral catalyst, H2, and a solvent. In this example the catalyst was derived from the complex of the transition metal rhodium with the chiral phosphine ligand, (1R,2S,4R,5S)—P,P-1,2-phenylenebis {(2,5-endo-dimethyl)-7-phosphabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane}(R,S,R,S-MePennPhos). The hydrogenations were carried out at a substrate concentration of about 0.12 M to about 0.24 M of compound 3.
Figure US20090149549A1-20090611-C00043
Koenig, Stefan G.; Vandenbossche, Charles P.; Zhao, Hang; Mousaw, Patrick; Singh, Surendra P.; Bakale, Roger P.
Organic Letters, 2009 ,  vol. 11,  2  pG . 433 – 436
Abstract Image
Imidoyl chlorides, generated from secondary acetamides and oxalyl chloride, can be harnessed for a selective and practical deprotection sequence. Treatment of these intermediates with 2 equiv of propylene glycol and warming enables the rapid release of amine hydrochloride salts in good yields. Notably, the reaction conditions are mild enough to allow for a swift deprotection with no observed epimerization of the amino center.
Supporting Information             A Facile Deprotection of Secondary Acetamides
(1R,4S)-4-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-amine hydrochloride – Compound 1, Scheme 1 / Table 3, entry 1A:
decomp. > 290 °C.
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.71 (s, 3H), 7.71 (d, 1H, J = 7.7 Hz), 7.53 (d, 1H, J = 8.1 Hz), 7.34 (s, 1H), 
7.29 (m, 1H), 7.22 (m, 1H), 7.01 (d, 1H, J = 8.1 Hz), 6.81 (d, 1H, J = 7.7 Hz), 4.56 (s, 
1H), 4.26 (s, 1H), 2.26 (m, 1H), 2.15 (m, 1H), 1.83 (m, 2H).
13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 147.3, 138.8, 133.5, 130.9, 130.5, 130.4, 130.0, 128.9, 128.8, 128.3, 128.1, 
126.7, 47.8, 43.0, 27.7, 25.1.
Inline image 1
13 C NMR
Inline image 2
Jerussi, T. P.; Fang, Q. K.; Currie, M. G. PCT Int. Appl. WO 2004042669 A1 200440325, 2004.
The discovery route involved preparation of (S)-tetralone (4S)-3 from racemic tetralone(4RS)-3 via chromatographic separation of sulfinyl imine (Rs,4RS)-5diastereomers, followed by hydrolysis. The sulfinyl imine isomers were generated by condensation with (R)-tert-butylsulfinamide ((R)-TBSA), (Rs)-4, in the presence of titanium ethoxide. The yield of sulfinyl imine diastereomer (Rs,4S)-5 was ∼15% after chromatographic purification. The low recovery yield was due to chromatographic loss and the instability of compound 5 on silica gel. The resulting (S)-tetralone (4S)-3 was converted to N-formyl amine (1RS,4S)-6 as a mixture of two diastereomers that were again separated by chromatography to afford the desired diastereomer(1R,4S)-6 in 17% yield over two steps. (1R,4S)-trans-norsertraline 1 was obtained after the acidic hydrolysis of (1R,4S)-6 in 71% yield. The overall yield of this route was less than 2% and involved two chromatographic purifications, making it impractical for an efficient large-scale synthesis of 1.
Jerussi, T. P.; Fang, Q. K.; Currie, M. G. PCT Int. Appl. WO 2004042669 A1 200440325, 2004.http://www.google.com/patents/WO2004024669A1?cl=en
Development of a large-scale stereoselective process for (1R,4S)-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-amine hydrochloride
Org Process Res Dev 2007, 11(4): 726
Abstract Image
A convenient, multikilogram-scale, stereoselective process for the synthesis of (1R,4S)-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-amine hydrochloride 1 is described. The key steps involve synthesis of sulfinyl imine(Rs,4S)-5 from (S)-tetralone (4S)-3 and (R)-tert-butylsulfinamide (Rs)-4, and its stereoselective reduction with 9-BBN to produce the (1R)-amine center of 1. The process has been scaled up to multikilogram scale and gives 1 in an overall yield of >50% with a chemical purity of 99.7 A% by HPLC and stereochemical purity of >99.9% by chiral HPLC.
(1R,4S)-4-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ylamine HCl (1).
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.81−1.93 (m, 2H), 2.12−2.21 (m, 1H), 2.28−2.36 (m, 1H), 4.28 (t, 1H, J = 6.8 Hz), 4.59 (br s, 1H), 6.84 (d, 1H, J = 7.6 Hz), 7.05 (dd, 1H, J = 8.4, 1.6 Hz), 7.25 (t, 1H, J = 7.6 Hz), 7.32 (t, 1H, J = 7.6 Hz), 7.37 (d, 1H, J = 1.6 Hz), 7.56 (d, 1H, J = 8.4 Hz), 7.76 (d, 1H, J = 7.2 Hz), 8.80 (br s, 3H).
13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 147.4, 138.9, 133.6, 131.0, 130.5, 130.4, 130.1, 129.0, 128.9, 128.4, 128.2, 126.8, 47.9, 43.1, 27.8, 25.2.
Anal. Calcd for C16H15Cl2N:  C, 58.47; H, 4.91; N, 4.26; Cl, 32.36. Found:  C, 58.44; H, 4.79; N, 4.21; Cl, 32.53.
WO 2004024669
Preparation of compounds of the present invention is illustrated below in Scheme 1 and its accompanying narrative.
Figure imgf000007_0001
[0015] In the compound
Figure imgf000008_0001
of Scheme 1,
R is R,° , wherein R1, R2 and R3 are each independently alkyl. In a preferred embodiment of the compounds, R is tert-butyl.
[0016] N-[4-(3 ,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1 ,2,3 ,4-tefrahydronaphthalen- 1 -yl]formamide, the intermediate in the synthesis shown in Scheme 1 , exists in four stereoisomeric forms:
Figure imgf000008_0002
C (1S,4S) D (1R.4R) [0017] When N-[4-(3 ,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydronaρhthalen-l - yl]formamide is synthesized from achiral starting materials via non- stereoselective syntheses, all four isomers will be produced. The mixture can be readily separated into a racemic cis diastereomer and a racemic trans diastereomer by means, such as recrystallization or chromatography on achiral media, that rely on chemical and physical differences.
[0018] The trans diastereomer, represented as E below, is a 1 :1 mixture of A and B. When E is hydrolyzed, PQ is produced; when A is hydrolyzed, P is produced; when B is hydrolyzed, Q is produced. The cis diastereomer, represented as F below, is a 1 : 1 mix of C and D.
Figure imgf000009_0001
E = A + B F = C + D
WO 2007006003
Figure imgf000027_0001
Scheme 3
Production (lR,4S)-4-(3,4-dichloro-phenyl)-l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthalen-l-ylamine HCl from 4-(S)-(3,4-dichloro-phenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-naphthalen-l-one.
Figure imgf000031_0001
(S)-(3,4-Dichloro-phenyl)-3,4- (1 R,4S)-4-(3,4-Dichloro-phenyl)-1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro- d ιhydro-2H-naphthalen-1 -one naphthalen-1 -ylamine; [0080] Charge 4-(S)-(3,4-dichloro-phenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-naρhthalen-l-one (1 kg, 3.4 mol) and (R)-tert-butylsulphinamide (TBSA, 464 g, 3.8 mol) to a suitable reactor and dissolved in about 7 L THF. Add a 20%wt solution of Titanium ethoxide in ethanol (about 7.8 kg, 6.9 mol) and heat the mixture to about 70 0C for about 24h. The reaction is monitored by HPLC, and after the reaction is complete, cool the mixture to room temperature and added a 24% wt aqueous solution of NaCl to the mixture. The resultant slurry was filtered and washed multiple times with about 1 L total of ethyl acetate. The mother liquors and washes were concentrated to a minimum volume. The aqueous phase was extracted with about 5 L of ethyl acetate and evaporated to dryness.
[0081] The contents were then dissolved in about 7 L of THF and cooled to about —10 0C. About 9 kg, (~5 mol) of a 0.5 M solution of 9-borabicycIononane (9-BBN) in THF, was added slowly (about 3h) and the mixture was stirred at 00C until reaction completion. A 6N HCl/methanol (~2L) was added to the mixture and stirred until the hydrolysis reaction was complete. After neutralization with about 2 L of 6N aqueous NaOH, the mixture was distilled to remove THF and the residue (aqueous phase) was extracted twice with methyl t- butyl ether (2x6L). The organic phase was then washed with water. The organic phase was concentrated, then cooled to 00C followed by addition of 2N HCl in methyl t-butyl ether (3 L). The product slowly precipitated as the HCl salt during the addition. The slurry was filtered and washed with methyl t-butyl ether (2x2L). The product was dried under vacuum at about 45°C to afford about 850 g of Re-Crystallization of crude (lR,4S)-4-(3,4-dichloro-phenyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthalen-l-ylamine HCl.
[0082] The resulting (lR,4S)-4-(3,4-dichloro-phenyl)-l,2,3,4-tetrahydro- naphthalen-1-ylamine HCl (85Og) was charged to a suitable reactor and about 30 L of denatured ethanol was added. The mixture was heated to reflux, the volume was reduced to about 50% via distillation, and then cooled to 50°C. About 30 L of Hexane was added to the slurry to complete the product crystallization and then the slurry was cooled to about 00C. The product was isolated by filtration, the cake was washed with about 2 L of ethanol/hexane (1/3 v/v) and then about 2 L of ethyl acetate, followed by about 3 L of hexane. The wet cake was dried under vacuum at about 45°C to afford 630 g of product.
[0083] Another alternative process for preparation of compound P is presented below.
[0084] 4-(S)-(3,4-dichloro-phenyl)-3,4-dichloro-2H-naphthalen-l-one (4.11 kg) and (R)-tert-butylsulphinamide (TBSA, 1.9 kg) were charged to a suitable reactor and dissolved in 29 L THF. A 20%wt solution of titanium ethoxide in ethanol (31.6 kg) was added and the mixture was heated to 70 °C with stirring. The reaction is monitored by HPLC, and after the reaction was complete (20-24 h) the mixture was cooled to room temperature and added to 20 L of a 24 wt% aqueous solution of NaCl. The resultant slurry was filtered and washed 3 times with ethyl acetate (4.1 L). The mother liquors and washes were concentrated to a minimum volume. The aqueous phase was extracted with about 20 L of a 1 :1 mix of ethyl acetate and toluene. The organic phases were combined and concentrated to half volume to give a solution of 2. A purified sample of 2 was analyzed: m.p. 104 0C, 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ (ppm) 8.23 (dd, IH, J= 7.9, 0.9 Hz), 7.38 (ddd, IH, J= 14.7, 7.3, 1.5 Hz), 7.37 (d, IH, J= 8.4 Hz), 7.33 (d, IH, J= 7.7 Hz), 7.17 (d, IH, J= 1.8 Hz), 6.93 (d, IH, J= 7.7 Hz), 6.89 (dd, IH, J= 8.4, 2.2 Hz), 4.18 (dd, IH, J= 7.3, 4.8 Hz), 3.36 (ddd, IH, J= 17.5, 8.8, 4.4 Hz), 2.93 (ddd, IH, J= 17.6, 8.3, 4.2 Hz), 2.33 (m, IH), 2.15 (m, IH), 1.34 (s, 9H). 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 175.8, 144.2, 142.7, 132.6, 130.8, 130.7, 129.7, 128.1, 127.6, 127.4, 57.8, 44.3, 31.1, 29.4, 22.8. HRMS calc for C20H2ICl2NOS 394.0799, found 394.0767.
[0085] The solution of imine (2) was cooled to -10 0C and 36.3 kg of a 0.5 M solution of 9-borabicyclononane (9-BBN) in THF, was added slowly (over 3h) and the mixture was stirred at 0 0C until reaction completion. A 4N HCl/methanol (8 L) was added to the mixture and stirred until the hydrolysis reaction was complete. After neutralization with about 15 kg of 6N aqueous NaOH (pH 8), the mixture was distilled to remove THF and methanol. The residue (aqueous phase) was extracted twice with methyl t-butyl ether (2 x 16L). The organic phase was then washed with water. The organic phase was concentrated, then cooled to 00C followed by addition of 2N HCl in methyl t- butyl ether (5.4 kg). The product precipitated as the HCl salt. The slurry was filtered, washed with methyl t-butyl ether (2 x 8L) and dried under vacuum at 450C to afford about 3.73 kg of crude (lR,4S)-4-(3,4-dichloro-phenyl)-l,2,3,4- tetrahydro-naphthalen-1-ylamine HCl (compound P).
A purified sample of P was analyzed:  NOTE P IS DASOTRALINE
m.p. 152 – 154 0C,
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ (ppm) 7.58 (d, IH, J= 7.7 Hz), 7.29 (m, 2H), 7.18 (br. t, IH, J= 7.5 Hz), 7.09 (d, IH, J= 1.8 Hz), 6.87 (d, IH, J= 7.7 Hz), 6.80 (dd, IH, J= 8.3, 2.0 Hz), 4.65 (dd, IH, J= 4.4, 4.4 Hz), 4.15 (t, IH, J= 5.5 Hz), 3.30 (d, IH, J= 3.7 Hz), 2.35 (m, IH), 1.95 (m, IH), 1.85 (m, IH), 1.75 (m, IH), 1.23 (s, 9H).
13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 147.1, 138.4, 138.0, 132.6, 130.8, 130.6, 130.5, 129.8, 128.3, 127.9, 55.8, 53.3, 44.0, 28.2, 27.7, 22.9.
HRMS calc for C20H23Cl2NOS 396.0956, found 396.0968.
[0086] The crude (lR,4S)-4-(3,4-dichloro-phenyl)-l,2,3,4-tetrahydro- naphthalen-1-ylamine HCl (3.63 kg) was charged to a suitable reactor and 128 L of denatured ethanol was added. The mixture was stirred at reflux and polish filtered. The volume was reduced to about 50% via distillation, and then cooled to 500C. 80 L of heptane was added to the slurry to complete the product crystallization and then the slurry was cooled to -5 °C. The product was filtered, the cake was washed twice with 5.7 L of ethanol/heptane (1/1 v/v) and then washed with 6 L of hexane. The wet cake was dried under vacuum at about 45°C to afford 2.57 kg of product. The product had a chemical purity of 99.65 A% and a diastereomeric purity in excess of 99%
WO 2011069032
Transnorsertraline, i. e. , (1 R,4S)-trans-4-(3 ,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1 ,2,3 ,4-tetrahydro- 1 – naphthalenamine and (lS,4R)-trans-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-l- naphthalenamine are described in, for example, U.S. Patent No. 7,087,785 B2 (“the ‘785 patent”; incorporated herein by reference in its entirety), have the following chemical structures, respectively:
Figure imgf000002_0001
Uses of transnorsertraline in the treatment, prevention, or management of affective disorders and other various CNS disorders are also disclosed in the ‘785 patent. Such disorders include, but are not limited to, depression, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, behavioral disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse disorders, and sexual function disorders.
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Multicenter Efficacy and Safety Study of SEP-225289 Versus Placebo in Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (NCT01692782)
ClinicalTrials.gov Web Site 2012, September 27
Characterization of the electrophysiological properties of triple reuptake inhibitors on monoaminergic neurons
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2011, 14(2): 211
PET evaluation of serotonin and dopamine transporter occupancy associated with administration of SEP-225289
Biol Psychiatry 2010, 67(9, Suppl. 1): Abst 102
[65th Annu Meet Soc Biol Psychiatry (SOBP) (May 20-22, New Orleans) 2010]
Koenig, Stefan G.; Vandenbossche, Charles P.; Zhao, Hang; Mousaw, Patrick; Singh, Surendra P.; Bakale, Roger P.
Organic Letters, 2009 ,  vol. 11, (2)  pg 433 – 436
Thalen, Lisa K.; Zhao, Dongbo; Sortais, Jean-Baptiste; Paetzold, Jens; Hoben, Christine; Baeckvall, Jan-E.
Chemistry – A European Journal, 2009 ,  vol. 15, ( 14)  pg. 3403 – 3410
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