- N,N'-Bis(3-acetylphenyl)decane diamide tetrakis (amidinohydrazone)
Tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a) plays a central role in the initiation and amplification of the granulomatous inflammatory reaction seen in CD (van Deventer, 1997). Increased TNF-a is present in gut mucosa as well as in stool of patients with active CD (Braegger et al, 1992). CNI-1493 is a synthetic guanylhydrazone compound that is an inhibitor of TNF-a synthesis. A monoclonal antibody to TNF, infliximab, is now approved for treatment of CD, but not all patients respond and many who do respond eventually become refractory to this treatment as well.
CNI-1493 is a synthetic compound which blocks the production of several inflammatory cytokines, including TNF. Because it blocks production of multiple inflammatory mediators, it may be more active than products targeted to a specific cytokine. In addition, as it is not a biologic, it should not cause hypersensitivity reactions or induce formation of antibodies.
The purpose of this trial is to determine if CNI-1493 is safe and effective in treating patients with moderate to severe Crohn's Disease in a placebo controlled setting.........https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00038766
HistorySemapimod was developed at the former Picower Institute for Medical Research, and is now licensed to Cytokine PharmaSciences. In 2000, Cytokine PharmaSciences licensed anti-infective applications of semapimod to Axxima Pharmaceuticals, but Axxima became insolvent in Dec. 2004 and its assets were acquired by GPC Biotech, which has recently merged into Agennix AG. Although the disposition of Axxima's partial rights to semapimod was not specified in these merger announcements, Cytokine PharmaSciences does not currently list any licensees for semapimod on its website.
Mechanism of actionSemapimod was first developed to inhibit nitric oxide synthesis by inflammatory macrophages, via inhibition of the uptake of arginine which macrophages require for nitric oxide synthesis. Subsequently it was found that suppression of nitric oxide synthesis occurred even at semapimod concentrations 10-fold less than required for inhibition of arginine uptake, suggesting that this molecule was a more general inhibitor of inflammatory responses. Further work revealed that semapimod suppressed the translation efficiency of tumor necrosis factor production. Specifically, semapimod was found to be an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase activation. Surprisingly, however, the primary mode of action in vivo is now thought to be via stimulation of the vagus nerve, thereby down-regulating inflammatory pathways via the recently discovered cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.
Pharmacology and clinical trialsIn a preclinical study in rats, semapimod was found to suppress cytokine-storm induction by the anticancer cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) without decreasing its anticancer properties, allow larger doses of IL-2 to be administered. A subsequent phase I trial in humans failed to show an increase in the tolerated dose of IL-2, although indications of pharmacological activity as an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor production were observed.
In a preliminary clinical trial of semapimod in patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease, positive clinical changes were observed, including endoscopic improvement, positive responses in some patients not responding to infliximab, healing of fistulae, and indications for tapering of steroids; no significant adverse effects were observed.
In a small clinical trial against post-ERCP pancreatitis, significant suppression was not observed, although investigators observed a significant reduction of the incidence of hyperamylasemia and the levels of post-ERCP amylase.
In the clinical trials above, semapimod tetrahydrochloride was administered by intravenous injection. This route has drawbacks such as dose-limiting phlebitis. Recently Cytokine PharmaSciences has announced the development of novel salt forms of semapimod which are said to be orally absorbable; a phase I clinical trial of one of these salt forms, CPSI-2364, has been completed, and a phase II trial is planned for 2010.
ChemistrySemapimod is synthesized by reacting 3,5-diacetylaniline with sebacoyl chloride in the presence of pyridine, followed by reaction of the resulting tetraketone with aminoguanidine hydrochloride.
- N,N′-bis(3,5-diacetylphenyl) decanediamide tetrakis (amidinohydrazone) tetrahydrochloride (CNI-1493), which has the following structural formula:
SYNTHESISThe reaction of decanedioyl dichloride (I) with 3,5-diacetylaniline (II) by means of pyridine in dichloromethane gives the corresponding diamide (III), which is condensed with aminoguanidine (IV) in refluxing aqueous ethanol to afford the target tetrakis amidinohydrazone. EP 0746312; EP 1160240; US 5599984; WO 9519767
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|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
N,N'-bis[3,5-bis[N-(diaminomethylideneamino)-C-methylcarbonimidoyl]phenyl] decanediamide tetrahydrochloride
|CAS Number|| |
|Molecular mass||890.73984 g/mol|