Diagnosis and treatmentFortunately, Unani classical literature consists of thousands of books and contains vast knowledge and mention of experiences on all aspects of medicine. According to Unani medicine, management of any disease depends upon the diagnosis of disease. In the diagnosis, clinical features, i.e., signs, symptoms, laboratory features and mizaj (temperament) are important. Any cause and or factor is countered by Quwwat-e-Mudabbira-e-Badan (the power of body responsible to maintain health), the failing of which may lead to quantitatively or qualitatively derangement of the normal equilibrium of akhlat (humors) of body which constitute the tissues and organs. This abnormal humor leads to pathological changes in the tissues anatomically and physiologically at the affected site and exhibits the clinical manifestations. After diagnosing the disease, Usoole Ilaj (principle of management) of disease is determined on the basis of etiology in the following pattern:
- Izalae Sabab (elimination of cause)
- Tadeele Akhlat (normalization of humors)
- Tadeele Aza (normalization of tissues/organs)
- Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer wa Ilaj-Bil-Ghiza (Regimenal Therapy). The disease may be treated by the modification of six essential pre-requisites of health (Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya in Unani Tibbi terminology). Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya may be modified by the use of one or more regimens: i.e., Dalak, Riyazat, Hammam, Taleeq, Takmeed, Hijamat (Cupping Therapy), Fasd, Lakhlakha, Bakhur, Abzan, Shamoomat (Aromatherapy), Pashoya, Idrar, Ishal, Qai, Tareeq, Elam, Laza-e-Muqabil, Imalah and alteration of food. According to the norms of C.C.I.M. New Delhi, Department of Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer has been established in almost all Unani Tibbi Colleges of India. In the State Unani Medical College, Allahabad, U.P. and State Takmeel-Ul-Tibb College, Lucknow, Department of Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer is known as Moalijat Khususi. Moaliajt Khususi is the old nomenclature of Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer, suggested by C.C.I.M. New Delhi. Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer is synonym to Panchkarma in Ayurveda.
- Ilaj-Bil-Advia (Pharmacotherapy). For this purpose Mamulate Matab Nuskha (prescription) is formulated which contain the single and or compound (murakkābāt) Unani drugs having desired actions as per requirements.
- Ilaj-Bil-Yad (Surgery)
Education and recognitionIn India, there are 40 Unani medical colleges where the Unani system of medicine is taught. After five and half year courses, the graduates are awarded BUMS (Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery). There are about eight Unani medical colleges where a postgraduate degree (Mahir-e-Tib and Mahir Jarahat) is being awarded to BUMS doctors. All these colleges are affiliated to reputed universities and recognized by the governments. In India, the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) a statutory body established in 1971 under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, monitors higher education in areas of Indian medicine including, Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. To fight biopiracy and unethical patents, the Government of India, in 2001, set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as repository of formulations of systems of Indian medicine, includes 98,700 Unani formulations. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) established in 1979, also under AYUSH, aids and co-ordinates scientific research in the Unani system of medicine through a network of 22 nationwide research institutes and units, including two Central Research Institutes of Unani Medicine, at Hyderabad and Lucknow, eight Regional Research Institutes at Chennai, Bhadrak, Patna, Aligarh, Mumbai, Srinagar, Kolkata and New Delhi, six Clinical Research Units at Allahabad, Bangalore, Karimganj, Meerut, Bhopal and Burhanpur, four Drug Standardisation Research Units at New Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai and Lucknow, a Chemical Research Unit at Aligarh, a Literary Research Institute at New Delhi.
Safety issuesAccording to WHO, "Pharmacovigilance activities are done to monitor detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of any obnoxious adverse reactions to drugs at therapeutic concentration that is used or is intended to be used to modify or explore physiological system or pathological states for the benefit of recipient." These drugs may be any substance or product including herbs, minerals, etc. for animals and human beings and can even be that prescribed by practitioners of Unani or ayurvedic system of medicine. In recent days, awareness has been created related to safety and adverse drug reaction monitoring of herbal drugs including Unani drugs.
Notable Unani Organizations/institutions
- GOVERNMENT UNANI MEDICAL COLLEGE,CHENNAI, TAMILNADU
- SHAMIM AHMAD SAEEDI UNANI HOSPITAL FOR JOINTS PAIN
- JAMIA REMEDIES (UNANI DRUGS MANUFACTURING COMPANY, INDIA)
- Baqai Dawakhana pvt ltd,Delhi India
- Awami Laboratories, Lahore, Pakistan
- Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan
- Farzana Dawakhana, Karachi, Pakistan
- Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine,India.
- Ajmal Khan Tibbia College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh,U.P.India.
- Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences,India.
- National Institute of Unani Medicine, (Government of India)
- A&U Tibbia College, Karol Bagh, New Delhi, (Government of N.C.T. Delhi),India.
- Faculty of Unani Medicine, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi,India.
- Government Nizamia Tibbi College and Hospital, Hyderabad, A.P.India.
- Anjuman-i- Islam's Tibbia College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
- ZVM Unani College and Hospital, Pune, M.S.India.
- State Takmeel-ut-tib College and hospital, Lucknow, U.P.(Government of U.P.).India.
- State Unani Medical College & H.A.H.R.D.M. Hospital, Himmatganj, Allahabad, U.P. (Government of U.P.).India.
- Saifia Hamidia Unani Tibbia College & Saeeda Hospital, Ganpati Naka, Burhanpur,M.P.India.
- Tipu Sultan Unani Medical College,Gulbarga, Karnataka.
- Govt. Unani and Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
- Markaz Unani Medical College & Hospital, Calicut, India
- The Institute of Indigenous Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
- Government Unani Medical College, Bashaveshwara Nagar, Bangalore-560079
- Mohsin-e-millat Unani Medical College and Hospital (Baijnathpara Raipur,chhattisgarh India)
- HSZH Govt. Unani medical college Bhopal-462003
- Ahmed Garib Unani Medical College Akkalkuwa Nandurbar M.S India
- All India Unani Tibbi Conference, New Delhi.
- Awami Dawakhana Unani,Hyderabad,India.
- Govt.Nizamia Tibbi College, Hyderabad,India.
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